Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad: A Biographical Account

The story of the Colonial Zamindar, and a Philanthropist from early 20th century, Pilibhit, United Provinces

Text by Rehan Asad| family Pics & Portraits by Mr. Mohammad Aslam

The portrait of  Haji Sheikh Mohammad Buksh, the father of Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad dressed in the traditional attire with the long cap and draped with the shawl. This portrait was from his late years of life probably taken in the decade of 1900.  Haji Shiekh Muhammad Buksh is still remembered among the local villagers of his estate as the pious and kind landowner with the title of “Bade Mian”

On 18th February 1917, a zamindar from a nearby village Daang, Pargana Jahanabad addressed a convocational gathering at Karghaina Building, Pilibhit, United Provinces as President of the Anjuman. I translated excerpts of his speech published in the Rawaid (minutes/proceedings of the convocation) from Bareilly in the same year. It reflected the profound insight of the man towards the role & the importance of modern education. “Modern education is the only tool to remove ignorance among communities. Muslims like other communities in subcontinent don’t have an inclination for modern education and this is the reason of the lagging of Muslims in all walks of life. Especially for our community in Rohilkhand, we are deliberately parting away from modern education. It is the lack of the modern education which is responsible for our heavy losses to the zamindari estates, and it will remain same in future. It would be a sense of grief for all of us that in the time of British governance that blessed us with a lot of favors, facilities, and freedom and still if our community would be isolated from the jewel of modern education. It should be our duty and efforts that we should accept the importance of modern education from our hearts. By the grace of God, you all are quite capable of resources to provide higher education to our young generation and also to those orphans of the community those are in utmost need. Therefore it is necessary to donate hefty amounts related to the scholarships for higher education.”– Speech Sheikh Ahmad Nazeer, 1917AD [1].

The cover page of the 18 February 1917 community convocation from where I translated the speech of the Shiekh Nazeer Ahmad. Its written in Urdu, Rawaid Ajlas e Awwal, Anjuman Rayyan, Rohilkhand Kumaon. Venue: 18 February, at Pilibhit on the residence of Shiekh Maulvi Abdul Haqq Sahab, Joint Secretary, and Landlord, Pilibhit. Addressed to Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad Sahab, President, and big Landlord, (Raese Aazam, Daang), Sheikh Tajuddin Sahab Joint secretary. With efforts of Hakim Mohammad Sarwar Khan Malik printed at Kohadapeer, Bareilly. At the top of the cover page, there is an inspirational verse in Urdu Khuda ne aaj tak us qaum ki halat nahi badli, Nahu jis ko khyal apni halat badalne ka

Family Background and Introduction: Sheikh Taj Mohammad was the founder of the household in Rohillkhand region and sixth in the generation of Sheikh Taj Mohammad was born Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad in the family Sheikh Mohammad Buksh [2].  According to Tarrekh Arain his ancestors originally belonged to Salarpur, District Jalandhar, Punjab, who migrated to Mangala, District Sirsa  (presently in Haryana) and then moved to Rohilkhand in the late 18th century [3].  Nevill in the District Gazette of Pilibhit (1909) cited the family of Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad as one of the notable and leading zamindars of Pargana Jahanabad, District Pilibhit [4]. His father Haji Sheikh Mohammad Buksh was a pious landlord who donated a considerable property from his zamindari shares in Pargana  Richaa, District Bareilly to the waqf of the historic Jama Masjid, Pilibhit. In the late 19th century, a Madarsa was also stared by his father at Village Daang, the headquarter of his zamindari estate. As the trend of the time among prosperous cultured families in those days, he was groomed by his father & private tutors. He had a good understanding of Arabic, Persian, and Urdu.

Description of his estate: The District Gazette of Pilibhit cited the revenue of his estate “Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad son of Sheikh Mohammad Buksh, an Arain hold seven villages and fifteen shares in District Pilibhit and pay revenue of ten thousand four hundred thirty-eight INR (Drake, 1934AD) ”[5]. He also held three whole villages in District Bareilly. Eighteen years later when the assessment report was prepared for the abolition of zamindari system based on the revenue in United Provinces, the total number of the zamindars in the highest strata i.e., ten thousand Indian Rupees were only three hundred ninety [6]. On reviewing District Gazetteer, I found that it was the highest revenue paid to the Government in Pargana Jahanabad and third highest in the District. As a foresighted man, he understood the outcomes of the upcoming reforms of United Provinces. It was during his time, the Daang estate also created a huge agrarian farm under the category of “Sir/Khudkasht” land with newly introduced machines and tractor. All these records showed that he belonged to one of the richest families in the district and among the top strata of United Province’s zamindar aristocracy. In 1952 after the abolition of Zamindari his descendants were able to hold an agrarian farmland spread over an area of more than two hundred acres of the land. He also had an honorary exemption from British Government arm acts [7].

More than century-old mosque build by the Sheikh Muhammad Buksh, the father of Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad at village Daang

Services & Charities: Whether it was the organization of feast on special occasions of Muharram, Rabi Ul Awwal or the expense of the “Urs” of the revered saint who was resting in the premises of Jahanabad Police Station, Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad continued the traditional charities of his forefathers. Aged locals still recalled him and his father as “Chote Miyan” and “Bade Miyan” who always treated their ancestors with generosity irrespective of their caste, creed, religion & social status. A trait that was rare to be found among the zamindars in the stratified rural settings of Colonial India. In 1915, he was one from Rohilkhand Arain community along with Shiekh Tajuddin, his brother Shiekh Wisluddin and Sheikh Abdul Haqq who attended the Arain convocation held at Lahore under the leadership of Sir Mian Mohammad Shafi. The main goal was to spread the awareness of the modern education. On 16 March 1916, Anjuman Arain, Rohilkhand & Kumaon was formed with its main goal to push the community towards modern education. Shiekh Nazeer Ahmad was appointed as the President of this society. During the span of a year handsome amount of three thousand three hundred twenty was collected with a donation of more than two hundred Indian Rupees by him. Almost a century before, two hundred Indian Rupees was the monthly salary of Class one officer. Among the many beneficiaries of this Anjuman, the foremost was Dr. Abdul Ghafor who got Indian Rupees Four/Month scholarship for his studies at Agra Medical School. He was also one of the contributors in established of first Islamia School at the district in 1932. The madrasa established by his father at the headquarter of the estate, Village Daang was also upgraded by him. It continued to serve as the junior high school till 1980s long after his death.His hospitality was still recalled by the locals. His ninety-year-old daughter informed that kitchen of his father offered food on daily basis to rich, poor, needy and passing by strangers. The ladies of the family personally supervised the daily preparations on the larger scale with the assistance of maids and trail of helpers.

The capacious kitchen that was once famous for its hospitality was located in Zenan Khana of the haveli. With the size of approximately 800 square yards, its arrangement is like a small apartment. The roof of covered area is supported by iron grids and timber.

Legacy: During his life, he was highly influenced by the educational moves and reforms of Sir Mian Mohammad Shafi (a Punjabi leader of Muslim league, educationist, Politician and Vice President of Viceroy Executive council) but maintained his stance to remained away from the political ideology of Muslim league. From his children, no one moved to Pakistan at the time of the partition. Later one daughter and youngest son relocated to Pakistan in last decade of the fifties due to matrimonial ties. He left behind a handwritten diary that he used to document relevant pieces of his life. Few pages had been shared by his grandson, Mr. Mohammad Aslam that showed the date, year, time of the birth of all his children.

A handwritten page from the diary of the Shiekh Nazeer Ahmad shared by his grandson, Mr. Mohammad Aslam.

Mr. Mohammad Ahmad, the eldest son of Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad. He was born on 16 October 1914. After his death, he managed the estate and then continued to maintain seat the of ancestors after the abolition of zamindari. In the sixties for the education of the kids, he moved to Pilibhit City and build a home at Karghaina Building. He also stared retail business of textiles as the business venture in changing time. After the death of his wife in 1976, he took the retirement and finally moved to Aligarh where his daughter was living in 1980. He was survived by four sons and three daughters. His last resting place is located at Aligarh.

The photograph of the second son of the Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad, Mr. Mohammad Tahir. He was born at 08 Jamadul Awwal, 1340 of Hijri Calendar as given in the diary of his father., Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad. The converter gives the date in Gregorian, January 1922. Mr. Mohammad Tahir passed in 1964 leaving behind two sons. The eldest one residing at Pilibhit and the younger one is software professional in Dubai, UAE.

Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad took his last breath in 1947 at the age of seventy and buried at family graveyard at Village Daang, the seat of his ancestors. He was survived by three sons, eldest Mr. Mohammad Ahmad, second, Mr. Mohammad Tahir and youngest Mr. Mohammad Athar and six daughters. Mr. Mohammad Athar moved to Italy after completing his Masters in Geology from Aligarh Muslim University in 1958. He got married to Miss. Anjum Ara Naeemi, the daughter of Mr. Abdul Hafeez Naeemi in 1960. Her wife was also 1957 graduate of Aligarh Muslim University. After his return from Italy, he joined as a geologist at ONGC India, Limited at Dehradun. In 1967, the couple relocated to Pakistan where he joined as Assistant Director in Ministry of Petroleum and Natural resources. Working at different positions, he retired as the Additional Secretary of Ministry of Finance, Pakistan in the year 1999. Among the daughters, only Mrs. Hajra Begum moved to Pakistan. She was born on 28th October 1920 and married to the Mr. Abdul Khaliq Jilani, S/O Hafiz Abdul Rasheed of Village Karghaina, Pilibhit. Mr. Abdul Khaliq Jilani relocated to Pakistan and retired as Deputy Controller, Military Accounts.

Portrait of Mr. Mohammad Athar, the youngest son of Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad. This photograph date back to his Aligarh Muslim University days as a student at Department of Geology. He completed his masters from AMU, Aligarh in 1958.

Portrait of Mr. Mohammad Athar probably from India. Joined ONGC after returning from Italy and relocated to Pakistan in 1967.  In Pakistan, he started his carrerr in Ministry of Petroleum and Natural resources and retired as additional secretary of finance, Pakistan in the year 1999.

Mr. Mohammad Athar, born June 12, 1933, at Village Daang and passed on June 18, 2004, at Islamabad, Pakistan. His last resting place is in Islamabad, Pakistan. He is survived by one daughter and two sons. The eldest one daughter is Doctor at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad and both of the Sons are settled in Houston, Texas, United States.

Portrait of Mr. Mohammad Athar with his nephew Mr. Mohammad Aslam from Albany, Newyork during one his visits to the United States in 1984.

The eldest son, Mr. Mohammad Ahmad continued maintained his estate for short span before its abolition. Shortly after the death of his father, the zamindari abolition act was passed and villages came under the direct control of the government. The family retained the possession of agrarian lands, haveli, and other assets till the seventies. Seventy years had passed and now all his children also passed away except his one daughter, Mrs. Asiya. Born on 04th April 1926, she is currently residing with his son at  Aligarh.

Mrs. Asiya Begum, the only surviving offspring of Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad. She was born on 20 Ramzan, 1344 Hijri (04th April 1926). Married to the Son of Khan Bahadur Shiekh Imtiaz Ahmad of Khamaria. She currently resides with his only son at Aligarh. His son a Professor of Botany recently retired from services as Head of the Botany Department, AMU, Aligarh.

She still recollected her memories of childhood days that witnessed the heydays of Daang estate under his father, Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad.

Mrs. Asiya Begum with two of his nephews. On her right flank, Mr. Mohammad Aslam (Son of Mr. Mohammad Ahmad), and left flank, Mr. Mujeeb Ur Rehman (Son of Mr. Mohammad Tahir). Photograph by the courtesy of Mr. Mohammad Aslam who recently visited homeland from Houston.

The third and fourth generation descendants have relocated to Pilibhit city, Aligarh, Karachi, Houston (few other cities of United States), and Dubai. None of them were left in the seat of their illustrious ancestors.  During my exploration of Village Daang, I  was spellbound that Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad & his pious father Haji Sheikh Muhammad Buksh are still alive in the heart of local villagers as “Chote Miyan” and “Bade Miyan”. 

One of the entrances to the inner courtyard of female section. There is a brick courtyard with bounded by the high wall before this gate.

Acknowledgments: Thanks to Mr. Mohammad Aslam for sharing the rare family portraits and diary pages. He is the grandson of Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad living in the Houston, Texas, United States from last thirty years. A doctorate in organic chemistry, he is an alumnus of Aligarh Muslim University, India & University of West Ontario, Canada. He passed his Masters in Organic Chemistry from Aligarh Muslim University in 1975 and completed his Ph.D. from University of Western Ontario, London, Canada in 1981. Formerly, he had been Vice President, Research, and Development at Lonza Group, a global organization for providing solutions for pharma and healthcare.

Note: In changing 21st-century, the members of small Punjabi Diasporic community (Arain/Rain) having roots from the villages of Rohilkhand & Kumaon (Bareilly, Pilibhit & District Nainital) can be found in  Pakistan, Middle Eastern countries, Canda, United States, & other western countries. Its the efforts of their elders who made great efforts more than a century ago to push the community towards modern education.

Glossary of terms: 

  1. Anjuman: An Urdu term used for the societies/organizations.
  2. Raees: The literal meaning is “Rich”. It was common practice to be used as an honorary appellation with the landlords of Urdu speaking United Provinces in Colonial India.
  3. Rawaid: The literal meaning of “Rawaid” is to perform or officiate. Here it is used in a context to document or officiate the proceedings of the Anjuman meet.
  4. Sir/Khudkasht: A category of the land that is cultivated by the zamindars by their own efforts. When zamindari reforms were passed, they were allowed to hold “Khudkasht/ self-cultivated” lands.
  5. Zamindar: A medieval Urdu term used for the landlord in Colonial India.

References: 

[1]Ahmad, N. (1917), Rawaid Ajlas Awwal, Anjuman Arain, Rohilkhand and Kumaon, conducted on 18th February 1917 AD at the house of Sheikh Maulvi Abdul Haqq, Joint secretary, and Raees Pilibhit. From Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad Raees e Azam Daang and President, and Shiekh Tajuddin Sahib, Raees Hulkari Dhakia, Secretary. Printed and designed at Kohadapeer, Bareilly.

[2]Ishaaq, M., and Naseem, M. (2001), In Chapter thirteen, Arain, Sangam offset and press, pp.36.

[3] Chaudhry, Asgahr A. (1963), chapter three,  Tarrekh Arain, 5th Ed., Asghar Ali Chaudhry, Ilmi Kutubkhana, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, pp.148.

[4] Nevill, H.R. (1909), PILIBHIT:  A Gazetteer of the District Gazetteers of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, VolXVIII.

[5] Rudade Ajlas Awwal, Anjumane Arain, Rohilkhand and Kumaon, conducted on 18th February 1917 AD at the house of Sheikh Maulvi Abdul Haqq, Joint secretary, and Raees Pilibhit. From Sheikh Nazeer Ahmad Raeese Azam Daang and President, and Shiekh Tajuddin Sahib, Raees Hulkari Dhakia, Joint Secretary. Printed and designed at Kohadapeer, Bareilly.

[6]Chaudhry, Asgahr A. (1963), chapter three,  Tarrekh Arain, 5th Ed., Asghar Ali Chaudhry, Ilmi Kutubkhana, Urdu Bazaar, Lahore, pp.141.

[7]Drake-Brockman, D.L. (1934), District Gazeeter of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, Supplement D:  Pilibhit District.

 

Fading Facts: Sir Mian Muhammad Shafi Contributions towards the Aligarh Movement

Text by Rehan Asad| A review for the educational services of Sir Mian Mohammad Shafi, a shared piece of the 20th century South Asian Colonial History

On 27 December 1894, at the Mohammedan educational conference, a twenty-five lawyer who returned recently from England wrote and recited eulogy for the Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in English. Few lines of the poem are presented here.

The sacred Brick of this grand Hall,
The boarding house, the College Rooms,
And this great conference, each and all
Forever the national heirlooms
Priceless and Loved, Shall Waft, your name
Sir Syed through the coming days,
What our nation might befall
Immortal lo, shall be your frame
Never waning, but in numerous ways,
Be ever more, the joy of all!

Sir Mian Muhammad Shafi, born on 10 March 1869 and passed away on 07th January 1932. The portrait is taken from the family collection by courtesy of Mian Hassan Farrukh who also runs a webpage http://mianfamily.tripod.com/ collecting a valuable history and background of Mian Family, Baghbanpura, Lahore.

Introduction to Mian Muhammad Shafi

The twenty-five-year young lawyer cited above was born on 10 March 1869 in historic “Mian family” of Arain tribe at Baghbanpura near Lahore. Many of his illustrious ancestors were conferred with titles and acknowledgments from the time of the Aurangzeb up to the rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in Punjab. Started his education from the vernacular middle school, he completed his education at Lahore University. On August 1889 AD, Shafi was sent to England to pursue studies at Bar. Fortunate enough to secure the admission at the honorable society of the Middle temple where his cousin Mian Shah Din was already studying for the Bar from last two years. In 1890 AD, elected as president of Anjuman-I- Islamia, London and in the same year, he competes for a scholarship in international and constitutional law and constitutional history at prestigious Middle Temple. At England, he actively participated at every forum that addressed the welfare of Indian students such as Indian section of the Royal Society of Arts, National Indian Association, and the society of encouragement and protection of Indian Arts. He holds the membership of Paddington parliament, an esteemed political society that constituted Member of Parliament, Barristers, Solicitors, and merchants. In 1892, he left England and started his legal career at Hoshiarpur although enrolled himself at both Allahabad and Lahore high courts.

Engagement with Aligarh Movement from the time of Sir Syed up to the approval of University Bill in 1920 during his tenure as the educational member of Viceroy Executive council

The participation of the Mian Muhammad Shafi in Aligarh movement traced from the time of the formation Anglo-Muhammadan Defence Association of Upper India in 1892. He represented Punjab province as a member of the association with Mr. Syed Mahmood and Mr. Theodore Beck (the then Principal of Aligarh College) as the joint secretaries. After his return from England in 1892, he participated in all annual meetings of All India Muhammadan Educational Conference. Several times, he presided female education and other sections of the conference. In the year 1898, the same year when the Great leader, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan departed from this world, he took a bigger responsibility of Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College. This was the appointment of Mian Muhammad Shafi as the as the trustee of Aligarh College. By the time of the sad demise of the great leader, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, the College has marked as one of the best residential institutions in India. In the coming years, he was engaged in his political and legal career along with active participation in Aligarh movement. The coming years was the tough time for the Aligarh College as its regulatory body got afflicted with factional politics due to the rift between Aftab Ahmad Khan and Ali brothers? During these years, Mian Muhammad Shafi distanced himself from controversies. By 1910, the efforts for the University campaign were revived. All India Muslim University association was formed under the leadership of His Highness, the Agha Khan and Nawab Viqarul-Mulk to centralize the efforts required for the elevation of the College to University in 1910. Mian Muhammad Shafi was elected as vice-president of All India Muslim University Association, and Honorary general secretary of the Punjab Province. For the next two years, Mian Muhammad Shafi put all his efforts for the cause and raised a fund of more three hundred thousand Rupees for the upliftment of the College to University. He himself donated five thousand Rupees in 1912 for the noble mission. In May 1911, a delegation went to meet Sir Harcourt Butler, the then education member of Viceroy executive council for discussing and finalizing the draft of University constitution. Mian Muhammad Shafi was one of the three representatives responsible for the negotiations with education members on the behalf of delegation. On September 25, 1911, Mian Muhammad Shafi represented as a spokesperson for carrying negotiations between the government and University promoters association. On 9 August 1912, Butler gave an official answer from the authorities at London regarding the rejection of University Bill.  In the background of factional politics, Justice Shah Din, the cousin of Mian Muhammad Shafi presided Agra session of Muhammadan educational conference of 1913. This was the second occasion, the Muhammadan education conference was presided by Justice Shah Din. The first time, he presided ninth session of All India Muhammadan educational conference in 1894 during the lifetime of Great Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Lady Shafi and Lady Shah Din represented Punjab on the opening ceremony of the girl’s section new building by Begum of Bhopal in 1915 at MAO College. Mian Muhammad Shafi presided the thirtieth session of Mohammadan educational conference, held at Aligarh, December 27-29, 1916. On this occasion, Mian Muhammad Shafi played an important role in bringing both factions on the table to accept the University approval on the terms and conditions of government. He sensed the risk of losing University funds and demand of the University seems to be jeopardized. The delegation of University committee meets Sir Nair, the successor of Butler as an education member in August 1917. The demand of the University committee was again rejected on the grounds of old boy’s association representation in the University court and control of trustees. The resignation of Sir Sankaran Nair from the seat of education member in June 1919 changed the direction of Aligarh University movement in the coming year. Imperial government as a successor of Sir Nair selected Mian Muhammad Shafi, a man with the long association with educational movement in India. He took the charge of the office at Shimla on 28 July 1919. Sir Butler now the lieutenant governor of United Province favored for reframing University constitution as a provincial University. Sir Mian Muhammad Shafi as an education member disagreed with Sir Butler suggestion of its provincial status. As an old associate of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, he was the firm believer of All India status of Aligarh University. On March 20, 1920, Mian Muhammad Shafi met the delegation of Muslim University committee as an education member. Muslim University bill was submitted to him. As an education member, Sir Muhammad Shafi introduced the bill on 9 September 1920 to Viceroy Executive council and got it approved. Sir Mian Muhammad Shafi efforts fulfilled the dreams of Late Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and all those members who were struggling for the cause from 1898. On 1 December 1920, the  Muslim University act was passed and Mr. Mohammad Ali Khan, Raja Saheb of Mahmudabad was appointed as the first vice-chancellor of the University.

Aligarh Movement Leaders at Vice Regal Lodge Shimla to demand the establishment of Aligarh Muslim University, 1911 AD. Standing on number thirteen from left to right in the portrait. The picture retrieved from http://aligarhmovement.com/Aligarh_Movement

Who could have imagined that one of the spokespersons from the delegate that went to meet the education member, Sir Butler in 1911 would himself passed and approved the University bill after nine years as the education member of Viceroy executive council?

Educational services and contributions as education member  

The British Government rewarded Mian Muhammad Shafi with C.I.E in 1916  and was Knighted in 1925. During his tenure as the education member of Viceroy Executive Council, the Decca, Nagpur, Rangoon, Lucknow, Aligarh and Delhi Universities were established. The bill of Aligarh Muslim University that was lingered in backwater from last one decade was finalized by his efforts. Government sanctioned the reforms for Allahabad and Madras Universities in his tenure. For his remarkable efforts, the Aligarh Muslim University conferred a D.Lit. (Honoris Causa) on 28 December 1922 on the eve of its first convocation. Delhi University conferred him Doctor of Law and Viceroy gave him the honorary nomination as Pro-Chancellor of the University in the same year. He was also responsible for Indianization of education department. From the time of his joining the office in 1919,  the number Indian officers twenty-nine and that rose to one hundred twenty during his tenure.The man took a farewell banquet from Viceroy executive council on 24 September 1925 and passed away in Lahore on 07 January 1932. An old associate of Sir Syed and member of its first syndicate, the Aligarh movement was always his priority even after reaching the zenith of his career as Vice-President of Viceroy executive council in November 1922. Why Aligarh forgot a man whose soul and the body was embedded in the noble mission for more than forty years. From the time Sir Syed up to difficult days of factional politics, he never turned away his services from Aligarh. As an acknowledgment, the Aligarh University remembered members of the first syndicate by naming departments, hostels, and Halls after their name. Unfortunately, there is not a single building in University named after a man whose efforts led to the creation of the University in 1920 after a struggle of twenty-two years. His larger contributions in the creation of my alma mater were lost somewhere in research articles and journals. The write-up is with an intent to pay the tribute to one of the core members of its first syndicate whose name is difficult to trace outside the sphere of academic articles.

References: 

  1. Eminent Muslamans, Madras, GA, Natesan & Co., 1922, 1st ed.  
  2. In Memorium: Mian Sir Muhammad Shafi (1932). The Islamic Review, XX(2-3), 41-46.
  3. Lelyveld, D. (1975). Three Aligarh Students: Aftab Ahmad Khan, Ziauddin Ahmad, and Muhammad Ali. Modern Asian Studies9(2), 227-240.
  4. Reddy, S. (Ed.). (2013). Mapping the Nation: An Anthology of Indian Poetry in English, 1870–1920. Anthem Press.
  5. Mehra, P. (1985). A dictionary of modern Indian history, 1707-1947. Oxford University Press.
  6. Minault, G., & Lelyveld, D. (1974). The campaign for a Muslim University, 1898–1920. Modern Asian Studies8(2), 145-189.
  7. Rizvi, S. A. A. (1993). Mian Muhammad Shafi: An Analytical Study of his Activities and Achievements (1869-1932). South Asian Studies10(1), 87.
  8. http://aligarhmovement.com/events/Aligarh_Movement
  9. http://mianfamily.tripod.com/